Leonard Joe (Saskatchewan), Gustavus Adolphus College: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/le-bon-gustave, https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gustave-le-bon. These covered various subjects, such as psychology and education, in Les lois psychologiques de l' évolution des peuples (1894), the psichologie du socialisme (1898) or Psichologie of education (1902); Physics at L' évolution de la matière (1905) and L' évolution des forces (1907); as well as other more general and anthropological, as the first civilizations of the India, the civilization of the Arabs, study of the civilizations and races, etc. A prophet and harsh critic of mass society, he ushered in the "age of the crowd," "the most recent sovereign of the modern age.". Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Gustave Le Bon was born on May 7, 1841, in Nogent-le-Retrou. 1902 Psychologie de l’éducation. [For the historical context of Le Bon’s work, see the biographies ofTarde; Tocqueville.For discussion of the subsequent development of his ideas, see Collective Behavior.]. To progress, it is not enough to want to act, one must first know in which direction to act.” Gustave Le Bon - Hier et demain. “The unconscious minds of the charmer and the charmed, the leader and the led, penetrate each other by a mysterious mechanism” (1910, p. 139). (December 19, 2020). Paris: Flammarion. Student of the Lycée de Tours, military physician during the Franco-German war, began working the anatomy and Physiology (materials of which published some works between 1866 and 1873) for deriving later into the anthropology and archaeology. revealed the distinctions between the superior and inferior races, but were the moral characters and intellectuals (accumulated by inheritance in a nation) who explained the dominance of a race or people over others. Thus a people, or a civilization, or a race, properly so-called, must have a national soul, that is, shared sentiments, shared interests, and shared ways of thinking. Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £25. (1980). The last of the works on these subjects, Les monuments de I’Inde, appeared in 1893, when Le Bon was 52. These works, in the classic "social Darwinism," which sought to justify colonialism on the basis of the Arianism anthropo-sociological theories, are imbued with a geographical determinism (influence of climatic conditions and mesologicas: temperature, humidity, characteristics of the soil, etc.) 19 Dec. 2020 . Before sketching the main outlines of the doctrine underlying all of Le Bon’s psychological work, one trait of this work—perhaps at the time the most original—should be stressed. → First published as Psychologie des foules. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. The French Revolution and the psychology of revolution. Persevering character and will peoples played an important role in the life of peoples that intelligence; on the other hand, those who had little power, character and perseverance were left dominate mass by a small group of men. After Le Vau and Mansart, the most inventive French architect of C17. Zitierweise Le Bon, Gustave, Indexeintrag: Deutsche Biographie, https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/pnd116850094.html [10.09.2020]. Carnot chose a statuette which Le Bon quickly indicated was not appropriate because it carried a curse. His deterministic conception of upper and lower races made him argue that it was advantageous for the first if they are crossed with other similar, forming a homogeneous, everything as it happened with the "English race", rather than with others very opposed or very different by their civilization, its past and its character, as it happened with the union of black and whiteIndian and European, etc. He began his adult life with travels in Europe, north Africa, and Asia. The principle that only the unconscious produces effective action applies, according to Le Bon, not only to individuals but also to whole peoples (or races, so long as it is well understood that what is meant are “historical races,” created by the events of history, and not races in the anthropological sense). London: Allen & Unwin. Because of this wide range, many have thought of Le Bon's work as shallow and dilettantish. He selected extremely concrete problems for study—for example, the socialist movement, the organization of education, colonial policy, the French Revolution, and World War I—but always sought to treat these problems in terms of scientific generalizations at the highest level of abstraction. ——. The series had considerable success. . It is, of course, chiefly by virtue of the works of this third phase that Le Bon belongs to the history of social science. Biography: French polymath. ." Writer. □. The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. "Le Bon, Gustave "Gustave Le Bon Le Bon's work is discussed in its historical context in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. Born: Jean-Alexis Moncorgé in Paris, 17 May 1904; some sources give surname as Monçorge and Morcorge; father a cafe…, Gustafson, Hon. In the human races he/she distinguished characters provided by inheritance and characters purchased under the influence of the environment, education and other causes. Encyclopedia.com. Gustave Le Bon, Bases scientifiques d'une philosophie de l'histoire. He postulated another, very interesting kind of inferiority: this is the inferiority of the crowd, or of man in the crowd. Picard, Edmond 1909 Gustave Le Bon et son oeuvre. ed. But these works in social psychology have links not only with the books of the period of his travels but also with those of what might be called his scientific phase. → First published as La révolution francaise et la psychologic des révolutions. Biography of Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931) French social psychologist born in Nogent-le Rotrou on May 7, 1841 and died in Marne - la Coquette on December 15, 1931. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Thus he asserted the existence of a hierarchy of races, based on psychological criteria (such as degree of reasoning ability, power of attention, mastery over instinctual drives; see the Psychology of Peoples 1894) and confirmed on anatomical grounds by the alleged greater differentiation of the superior races and the greater consequent incidence of individuals who rise above the mean. A tireless worker, he made a living as a writer and editor. Nationality: French. His best-known book is La Psychologie des foules (1895; translated as The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, 1897). ORTIZ, F. The deception of the races. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Encyclopedia.com. Just as a people cannot choose its appearance, it cannot freely opt for its cultural institutions. Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. New York: Viking. Le Bon estudió en el lycée de Tours y después ingresó en la Facultad de Medicina de París. French social psychologist born in Nogent-le Rotrou on May 7, 1841 and died in Marne - la Coquette on December 15, 1931. Le Bon's name has for years been associated with The Crowd (1895/1995), which made him one of the founders of group psychology. Le Bon, like Tarde, who wrote on the same topic at the same time, offered two explanations: mental contagion and the role of leaders, who are often, but not always, described as agitators. LE BON, G. The civilizations of the India. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. (Original work published 1912), ——. Moreover, according to Le Bon, it is these fundamental beliefs that produce lack of understanding and intolerance between peoples and groups and thus account for the irreducibility of what may be called ideological conflicts and the inevitability of civil strife and international wars. Pensées brèves . But to make those changes and fixing there will be connected, the mixed races could not be in very different proportion, since if, for example, a small group of whites was transported in the middle of a great mass of black, that would disappear quickly. Le Bon believed that the psychology of men in a crowd differs essentially from their individual psychology; they be-come simple automata, instances of a sort of new being. and biological (paper legacy, Anatomy, natural selection and the struggle for existence) with that tried to hold that many towns were inferior to the Aryans and, in short, to several European Nations. Like Le Bon he sought to explain the phenomena of collective life through individual psychology. . 1968). International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. (1995). Encyclopedia.com. They may even have special merit, for it was precisely such arbitrary assertions of Le Bon that contained his happiest insights. The crowd. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine en 1866. Gustave Le Bon - Sociologue français. “Contagion is a phenomenon that is readily observed, but has not yet been explained, and had best be related to the phenomena of hypnotism...” (1895, p. 17). Liv og virke Bakgrunn. Nevertheless, men such as Sigmund Freud and Gordon Allport acknowledged the vital importance of Le Bon's work. Hijo de Jean Marie Charles Le Bon y Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmar- linais. However, when he was in his late thirties Le Bon’s interests began to shift radically: he invented recording instruments (exhibited in 1878), studied racial variations in cranial capacity, analyzed the composition of tobacco smoke, published a photo-graphic method for making plans and maps, as well as a treatise that put the training of horses on an experimental basis, and, finally, devoted more than ten years to research on black light, intra-atomic energy, and the equivalence of matter and energy. But Freud eliminated the notions of heredity, mentality, and suggestion and replaced them with a model of unconscious identification. Pages v-xxxix in Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd. Le Bon told Carnot that the owner of the statuette would be killed upon reaching the highest office in France. New York: Macmillan. (December 19, 2020). COMMAS, J. Le Bon's idea of the unconscious as an archaic heritage of the human soul was closer to Jung than to Freud. Biographie : Gustave Le Bon est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. Biography Youth Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. Le Bon also believed in the contagion of ideas in a crowd such that individual members, in a heightened state of suggestibility and with feelings of omnipotence, are subjugated to the will and emotion of the crowd mind. 19 Dec. 2020 . Nationality: French. On the last day of his life he repeated the theme that where the common people continue to maintain, or gain, control of government, civilization is moved in the direction of barbarism. Racial myths. The psychological characteristics of crowds, as analyzed at length in the celebrated The Crowd, may be grouped around three themes. Adam, Adolphe (Charles), noted French composer, son of Jean (Louis) Adam; b. Paris, July 24, 1803; d.…, Prévert, Jacques Although defender of an elitist social theory of deterministic character with great biological component, Le Bon stated that the parliamentary system, despite its flaws, was the best method that Governments had undertaken, and tyrannies producing sterilization of values and the collapse of the energy, as well as the demagogic democracies. An interesting incident attributed to Le Bon concerns his return in 1884 from an anthropological expedition to India, where he was commissioned by France to study Buddhist monuments. He has been reproached for the summary, polemical, even reactionary nature of his analysis. Le Bon received a doctorate of medicine without any vocation for the profession. Similarly, he claimed to support his ideas on the psychological hierarchy of races and sexes with material from his study of the variations in the volume of the brain. However, with a certain degree of relationship between two villages or approximate races, foreign domination could easily be accepted. In particular, the “law of the mental unity of crowds” was widely accepted and taught, and perhaps still is. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html, Gustave Le Bon, a French physician and philosopher, was born in 1841 in Nogent-le-Rotrou and died on December 24, 1931, in Paris. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Freud wanted to clarify the irrationality of the group in order to reduce it, while Le Bon appeared to systematically cultivate it. 1968). Different races that political circumstances were one people could prove to be in the long run one race, to the effect of the action of the medium, the crosses and inheritance; now also with the centuries, in addition to the physical characters, other moral and intellectual. 1841-1931. Explore books by Gustave Le Bon with our selection at Waterstones.com. Taine's influence on Le Bon was considerable, but so was that of Ribot and Charcot. Le Bon, Delaunay and other anthropologists attributed to women intellectual, physical and moral inferiority on the basis of certain characters anthropological, like physical strength and different cranial capacity, weight and volume of the brain, which threw less than human values. ." Their spirit is that of the crowd which, like every spirit, is part of the unconscious; but this is a very low-level part of the unconscious, archaic or primitive from a historical point of view and medullar from a physiological one. Although Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) is most generally known for his book The Crowd, his career in fact had three overlapping phases, the successive focuses of his interest being anthropology and archeology, experimental and theoretical natural science, and only finally social psychology. Né en 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou, Eure-et-Loir, où son père, Jean Marie Charles Le Bon, est conservateur des hypothèques, Charles Marie Gustave Le Bon fait ses études au lycée de Tours. (Original work published 1895). Marie François Sadi Carnot, then the minister of public works, was given an opportunity to choose for himself an artifact from a group Le Bon had brought back. Le Bon was convinced that contingent events as well as social behavior are guided by eternal laws (1912, p. 322). The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Merton, Robert K. (1960) 1963 The Ambivalences of Le Bon’s The Crowd. PESET, J.L. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931. The village was, for its part, an agglomeration of various races that brought together policy, geography, or other causes under a single Government. SE, 18: 65-143. ." Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931) was a French social scientist and philosopher. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. : +49 160 53 70 379 Né en 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou, où son père était conservateur des hypothèques, il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine5 en 1866. The son of a civil servant, this country doctor developed an early interest in anthropology, then sociology and psychology. A good review of Le Bon's career is in the introduction by Robert K. Merton to Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1960). ed. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon est né à Nogent-le-Rotrou, dans le Centre-Val de Loire, le 7 mai 1841. La Habana, Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1975. New York: Fraser. (1931) Ouvrage illustré de: 1- Médailles traduisant les sentiments d'une époque; 2- Instruments de l'auteur pour mesurer les variations des personnalités biologiques correspondant aux changements de personnalités mentales; 3- Combinaisons d'architecture montrant l'influence de races étrangères. TORT, P. Dictionaire du darwinisme et de l' évolution. BIOGRAPHIE . The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon … See also: Bonaparte, Marie León; Christians and Jews: A Psychoanalytical Study ; Fascination; Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego ; Otherness; Suggestion. This rudimentary theory of learning was first formulated when he was studying the training of horses and then extended to human education and to politics. Ironically, the fame of some men is based on their mistakes and thereby confronts their critics with a painful dilemma: either to blame such a man for the very things that made him popular or to praise him for contributions that would not have existed were it not for the mistakes. art directory . https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/le-bon-gustave, "Le Bon, Gustave 1892 L’équitation actuelle et ses principes: Recherches expérimental s. Paris: Firmin-Didot. La meilleure citation de Gustave Le Bon préférée des internautes. Esprit universel, polygraphe, il est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages dans lesquels il aborde le désordre comportemental et la psychologie des foules. 19 Dec. 2020 . Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) Gustave Le Bon was a French social scientist and philosopher. Translation of extract was provided by the editors. International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Le Verrier, whose family came from Normandy, attended secondary school in his native city and then in Caen. 1910 Psychologie politique et la defense sociale. At the time of Le Bons birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Paris: Flammarion. To concentrate criticism on this particular problem of explanation would be misleading, for these theories of mental contagion and of the role of leaders are no more gratuitous, no more confused, and no more based on obsolete psychology than is the entire core of Le Bon’s system. I saw the first term of the kind applied to the animal, estimated that the different races of men were separated by distinctive characters as marked as that separating species of animals next, characters possessing the characteristic reproduce by inheritance with regularity and consistency. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. One of these eternal laws that Le Bon constantly invoked is the futility of rationality in the affairs of society: an idea does not prevail because it is true, but by virtue of psychological mechanisms that have nothing to do with reason, such as repetition and “mental contagion.” These mechanisms permit an idea to penetrate into the unconscious, and it is only when an idea does become part of the unconscious that it becomes effective for action. Biographie: Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social, sociologue. A paperback edition was published in 1960 by Viking. Das konnte er am genauesten das Verhalten der Zuschauer und die Gründe beschreiben was … In 1902, Le Bon began editing a collection of scientific works for Flammarion, the "Bibliothèque de philosophie scientifique," intended for the lay reader. Instead, a new distillation of traits emerged, primarily unconscious in nature, which reflected racially inherited characteristics. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gustave-le-bon. Le Bon's ideas about social evolution and political revolution were related again to racial stock. Such discriminatory criteria also include those who relate to the degradation of peoples, social classes and races for miscegenation, physical, moral, psychological and intellectual inferiority of these in relation to the Europeans, and many others. As a specific instance of such hierarchical ordering, Le Bon repeatedly compared the mental constitution of the Anglo–Saxon race with that of the Latin peoples, and down to World War i he considered the Anglo–Saxons superior in every way. Retrouvez les citations et proverbes les plus célèbres de Gustave Le Bon. Paris: Flammarion. London: Allen & Unwin. Retrouvez toutes les phrases célèbres de Gustave Le Bon parmi une sélection de + de 100 000 citations célèbres provenant d'ouvrages, d'interviews ou de discours. 1 (1954; rev. Freud read Le Bon and was directly inspired by him in writing Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego(1921c). Paris: Flammarion. It is these deeply-rooted beliefs that govern institutions (not the inverse, as Tocqueville had imagined). He died on Dec. 13, 1931, at Marnela-Coquette near Paris. All of Le Bon's work bears the mark of the intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle France: an attraction to the irrational, the primacy of feeling over reason, and the role of heredity and race.